Photonics (also called optoelectronics, though this latter term has a more narrow focus) is a field that encompasses light-related technology: light sources, waveguides, and light detectors. In recent years, more products and designs have been based on this technology, most prominently in telecommunications and sensing. As this technology has matured, so has the need to evaluate the performance of photonic devices and increase their reliability and lifetime.
This webpage will highlight some of the basics of photonics and CALCE's role and research in this field.   


Dr. Diganta Das
301-405-7770 |


  1. Packaging, Manufacturing and Reliability Issues in Photonics
  2. Failure Mechanisms and Physics of Failure Assessment of Optoelectronic and Electronic Packages
  3. Reliability of  Light Sources (LEDs and Lasers)
  4. Optical Fiber Components
  5. Optical Fiber Sensors

Related CALCE Links

  1. Reliability Assessment of a PCB Assembly in Bellcore Specified Temperature/Humidity Environments, 1995
  2. Procedure for Evaluation of Thermal Management Requirements in a Laser Diode Structure, 1997
  3. Optoelectronics at CALCE

CALCE Projects

Project Number: C01-34 - Effect of Proof Testing on Optical Fiber Fusion Splices

CALCE Publications

Comparison of Statistical Models for the Lumen Lifetime Distribution of High Power White LEDs, Jiajie Fan, K.C.Yung, Michael Pecht, IEEE 2012 Prognostics and System Health Management Conference (PHM-2012 Beijing), Beijing , pp. 1-7, May 23-25,2012.
Prognostics and Health Management: Utilizing the Life Cycle Knowledge to Reduce Life Cycle Cost, Diganta Das, 1st International Symposium on Physics and Technology of Sensors (ISPTS), pp.1, 2012.
Environmental Acceleration Factors of Nonhermetic Packaged AlGaAs LEDsPatricia F. Mead, Yubing Yang, Melody Burch, Patrick McCluskey, and F. G. Johnson, Photonics West, January, 2001.
Experimental and Numerical Studies in the Evaluation of Epoxy-Cured Fiber Optic ConnectorK. Broadwater, P. F. Mead, IEEE Electronics and Components Technology Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, pp. 981-988, May 2000.
Characterization of Epoxy Cured Fiber Optic Connectors Via Fiber SensorsK. Broadwater, P. F. Mead, ASME Proceedings of the POLY-1999 Workshop on Polymeric Materials for Microelectronics and Photonics Applications: Mechanics, Physics, Reliability, Processing, Paris, France, December 1999.
Fiber Optic Reliability using Fiber Optic SensorsK. Broadwater, P.F. Mead, Proceedings - SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering 1999, VOL 3860 SPIE Fiber optic sensor technology and applications, Boston, MA, pp. 543-552, September 1999.
Stress Characterization of Fiber Connector AssembliesK. Broadwater, P. F. Mead, 1999 SEM Annual Conference, Cincinnati, Ohio, pp. 727-730, June 1999.
Axial-angular displacement fiber optic sensorSagrario, D., Mead, P.F., Society of Experimental Mechanics Spring Conference, Bellevue, WA, November 1998.
Color Shift Failure Prediction for Phosphor-Converted White LEDs by Modeling Features of Spectral Power Distribution with a Nonlinear Filter, Jiajie Fan, Moumouni Guero Mohamed, Cheng Qian, Xuejun Fan, Guoqi Zhang and Michael G. Pecht, MDPI Materials, Vol. 10, Issue 7, pp. 819, July 2017.
A Review of Prognostic Techniques for High-Power White LEDs, Bo Sun, Xiaopeng Jiang, Kam-Chuen Yung, Jiajie Fan, and Michael Pecht, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 32, No. 8, August 2017.
A return on investment analysis of applying health monitoring to LED lighting systems, Moon-Hwan Chang, Peter Sandborn, Michael Pecht, Winco K.C. Yung, Wenbin Wang , Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 55, pp. 527-537, March 2015.
Introduction to LED Thermal Management and Reliability, Michael Pecht, Diganta Das, Moon-Hwan Chang, Thermal Management for LED Applications, Solid State Lighting Technology and Application Series, Vol. 2, pp 3-14, 2014, DOI:0.1007/978-1-4614-5091-7_1.
Degradation analysis of secondary lens system and its effect on performance of LED-based luminaire ,Dae-Suk Kim, Bongtae Han and Youn-Jea Kim, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 54, No. 1, September 2013.
Optimum Design Domain of LED-based Solid State Lighting Considering Cost, Energy Consumption and Reliability, Bong-Min Song, Bongtae Han and Joon-Hyun Lee, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp 435-442, March 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.microrel.2012.10.010.
Lifetime Estimation of High-Power White LED using Degradation-Data-Driven Method, Jiajie Fan, Kam-Chuen Yung, and Michael Pecht, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 470-477, June 2012.
Lifetime Estimation of High-Power White LED Using Degradation-Data-Driven Method, J. Fan, K.-Chuen Yung and M. Pecht, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 470-477, June 2012.
Life Prediction of LED-Based Recess Down-light Cooled by Synthetic Jet, Liyu Zheng, Janis Terpenny, Peter Sandborn, Raymond Nelson III, Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 52, Issue 5, Pages 937-948, DOI: 10.1016/j.microrel.2011.04.014, May 2012.
Failure Modes, Mechanisms, and Effects Analysis for LED Backlight Systems used in LCD TV's, J. Fan, K.C. Yung and M. Pecht, Prognostics and System Health Management Conference 2011, pp.1-5, Shenzhen, China, May 24-25, 2011.
In-Fiber Strain Characterization of Fiber Optic Connector Assemblies Via Bragg Grating SensorsP. F. Mead, K. BroadwaterApplied Optics, vol. 39.,no. 28, Oct. 1, 2000.
Fiber Optic Sensor for Simultaneous Displacement and Rotation MeasurementsSagrario, D., Mead, P.F., Applied Optics, vol.37, no.28 p. 6748-54.
 Procedure for Evaluation of Thermal Management Requirements in a Diode Laser StructureKamath, R., Mead, P.F., Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 37, No. 12, p. 1817, 1997.
Reliability Assessment of Optical Fibers Under Tension and Bending Loads, Yang, Yubing, Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering, 2003.
Optical Fiber Sensors for Health Monitoring of Fiber Optic Connectors, Broadwater, Keita, Ph.D. Proposal, 1999.  
Failure Mechanisms and Reliability Assessment of Optoelectronic and Electronic Packages, Chen, Qing Yan Jenny, M.S. Mechanical Engineering, 1995.


Bandwidth The range of frequencies over which a particular instrument is designed to function within specified limits.
Infrared - The invisible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that lies between about 0.75 and 1000 µm.
Laser - Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers usually have low bandwidth and high power. Lasers can operate in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions of the optical spectrum.
LED Light Emitting Diode. LEDs work on the principle of spontaneous emission of light as opposed to stimulated emission. LEDs usually have high bandwidth but relatively low power. LEDs operate in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet regions of the optical spectrum.
Optics That branch of physical science concerned with vision and certain phenomena of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range extending from the vacuum ultraviolet at about 40 nm to the far-infrared at 1 mm. Now being replaced by the more inclusive term photonics.
Optical fiber A thin filament of drawn or extruded glass or plastic having a central core and a cladding of lower index material to promote internal reflection. It may be used singly to transmit pulsed optical signals (communications fiber) or in bundles to transmit light or images.
Optical interconnection - The use of photonic devices rather than electronic devices to make connections within and between integrated circuits.
Photodiode - A two-electrode, radiation-sensitive junction formed in a semiconductor material in which the reverse current varies with illumination. Photodiodes are used for the detection of optical power and for the conversion of optical power to electrical power.
Photonics The technology involving light and photons at all wavelengths between the far-infrared and the ultra-violet. Also called "Optoelectronics".
Splice A permanent joint whose purpose is to couple optical power among two or more ports. Also, a device whose purpose is to couple optical power between a waveguide and a source or detector.
Ultraviolet - The invisible region of the spectrum just beyond the violet end of the visible region. Wavelengths range from 1 to 400 nm.
Visible Spectrum Light which can be seen by the unaided human eye, defined in our case as between 400 nm and 750 nm.
Waveguide A system or material designed to confine and direct electromagnetic waves in a direction determined by its physical boundaries.
Wavelength - Electromagnetic energy is transmitted in the form of a sinusoidal wave. The wavelength is the physical distance covered by one cycle of this wave; it is inversely proportional to frequency.